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Friday, October 19, 2018

October 19, 2018

Agile Development Interview Questions in addition to Answers

Agile Development Interview Questions too Answers Agile Development Interview Questions too Answers
Agile Development Interview Questions too Answers

1) What is Agile?
 

AGILE is a methodology that promotes continuous iteration of evolution too testing throughout the software evolution life bicycle of the project. Both evolution too testing activities are concurrent dissimilar the Waterfall model.

2) What is Agile testing?
 

Agile Testing is testing practise that follows the principles of agile software development. Agile testing involves all members of an agile squad alongside special skills too expertise to ensure employment concern value is delivered at frequent intervals.

3) In what way does the Agile Testing /Development Methodology differs from the other testing /development methodologies?
 

Anytime applying agile methodology, the testers /developers ensure that the whole procedure of testing /development is broke into equally modest steps equally possible too exactly a modest unit of measurement of code is tested /developed inwards each of this steps. The squad of testers /developers is communicating consistently the results of their work, too alter the brusk term strategy too fifty-fifty the evolution programme on the go, based on the results of agile testing. Agile methodology encourages flexible too rapid answer to alter which should Pb to a amend terminate result.

4) How is it different to traditional Waterfall or the V model?
 

The large divergence is that inwards agile environment, testing is non a phase, it is an activity parallel to development.
•    In agile environment, modest features of software are delivered frequently, hence testing activity should locomote parallel to evolution activity. Testing fourth dimension is brusk equally nosotros are solely testing modest features.
•    In the waterfall model, in that location is a testing stage at the terminate of the evolution so, testing is a large attempt done after the whole application is developed. Testing fourth dimension is long equally nosotros receive got to exam the whole application.

5) What are the different Methodologies inwards agile testing?
 

There are diverse methods nowadays inwards agile testing such as,
•    Scrum
•    Crystal Methodologies
•    DSDM(Dynamic Software Development Method)
•    Feature driven development(FDD)
•    Lean software development
•    Extreme Programming(XP)

6) List out the pros too cons of exploratory testing (used inwards Agile) too scripted testing? 

   
 Exploratory Testing:   
Pros:
•    It requires less preparation- Easy to modify when requirement changes
•    Works good when documentation is scarce
Cons:
•    Presenting progress too Coverage to projection administration is difficult
    Scripted Testing:
Pros:
•    In representative testing against legal or regulatory requirements it is really useful   

Cons:
•    Test grooming is commonly time-consuming- Same steps are tested over too again
•    When requirement changes it is hard to modify

7) What are the benefits of Agile Software development?


Agile methods grew out of the real-life projection experiences of leading software professionals who had experienced the challenges too limitations of traditional waterfall evolution on projection after project.  The approach promoted past times agile evolution is inwards straight answer to the number associated alongside traditional software evolution – both inwards damage of overall philosophy equally good equally specific processes.

8) What is the Agile Manifesto?
 

The agile software evolution emphasizes on 4 meat values:
•    Individual too squad interactions over processes too tools
•    Working software over comprehensive documentation
•    Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
•    Responding to alter over next a plan

9) What are some of the fundamental features of Agile Development?
 

Some of the fundamental features of agile evolution are,
•    Collective code ownership too liberty to change.
•    Incremental approach (e.g. user stories are incrementally implemented). Automation (e.g. TDD -- Test Driven Development).
•    Customer focused (for e.g. internal too external users too employment concern analysts are your immediate customers).
•    Design must locomote simple.
•    Designing is an ongoing activity alongside constant re-factoring to accomplish the rules of code simplicity similar no duplication, verified past times automated tests, separation of responsibilities, too minimum number of classes, methods, too lines.

10) What is Scrum?
 

Scrum is an innovative approach to getting piece of work done inwards efficient way. It is iterative & incremental agile software evolution method. These iterations are fourth dimension boxed alongside diverse iterations & each iteration is called Sprint. According to latest surveys Scrum is the most pop agile projection administration methodology inwards software development. The term Scrum is formed from Rugby.
Scrum is ideally used where highly emergent or rapidly changing requirements. Scrum is basically worked on a self-organizing, cross-functional team. In the overall scrum squad in that location is no squad leader who assign the employment to squad rather whole scrum members piece of work equally a squad & they decides the employment on which they volition piece of work on. Also the employment volition locomote resolve past times team.

11) What are the 3 primary roles inwards Scrum?
 

The Scrum squad consists of 3 primary roles:
•    Product Owner: Manages the production backlog. PO is the phonation of the employment concern too do novel features to locomote developed for the application.
•    Scrum Master: Responsible for managing the sprint, withdraw whatever impediments too keeps rails of the progress of the project.
•    Scrum Team itself: Composed of developers, designers too QA. This forms the squad which is responsible for delivering high lineament software.

12) What is Sprint?
 

Sprint is a predefined interval or the fourth dimension frame inwards which the piece of work has to locomote completed too larn inwards prepare for review or prepare for production deployment. This fourth dimension box commonly lies betwixt 2 weeks to 1 month. In our hateful solar daytime to hateful solar daytime life when nosotros state that nosotros follow 1 calendar month Sprint cycle, it only way that nosotros piece of work for ane calendar month on the tasks too larn inwards prepare for review past times the terminate of that month.

13) Explain how you lot tin mensurate the velocity of the sprint alongside varying squad capacity?
 

When planning a sprint usually, the velocity of the sprint is measured on the solid soil of professional person judgment based on historical data. However, the mathematical formula used to mensurate the velocity of the sprint are,
•    First – completed floor points X squad capacity: If you lot mensurate capacity equally a per centum of a xl hours weeks
•    Second – completed floor points / squad capacity: If you lot mensurate capacity inwards man-hours
For our scenario instant method is applicable.

14) What is an epic, user stories too task?
 

•    Epic: H5N1 client described software characteristic that is itemized inwards the production backlog is known equally epic. Epics are sub-divided into stories
 

•    User Stories: From the client perspective user stories are prepared which defines projection or employment concern functions, too it is delivered inwards a detail sprint equally expected.
 

•    Task: Further downwards user stories are broken downwards into different task

15) Mention the fundamental divergence betwixt sprint backlog too production backlog?
 

•    Product backlog: It contains a listing of all desired features too is owned past times the production owner
 

•    Sprint backlog: It is a subset of the production backlog owned past times evolution squad too commits to deliver it inwards a sprint. It is created inwards Sprint Planning Meeting

16) In Agile advert what is the divergence betwixt the Incremental too Iterative development?
 

•    Iterative: Iterative method is a continuous procedure of software evolution where the software evolution cycles are repeated (Sprint & Releases) till the finally production is achieved.
Release 1: Sprint 1, 2… n
Release n: Sprint 1, 2….n
•    Incremental: Incremental evolution segregates the arrangement functionality into increments or portions. In each increment, each segment of functionality is delivered through cross-discipline work, from the requirements to the deployment.

17) Explain what is Spike too Zero sprint inwards Agile? What is the purpose of it?
 

•    Sprint Zero: It is introduced to perform some query earlier initiating the initiative off sprint. Usually this sprint is used during the start of the projection for activities similar setting evolution environment, preparing production backlog too hence on.
 

•    Spikes: Spikes are type of stories that are used for activities similar research, exploration, pattern too fifty-fifty prototyping. In betwixt sprints, you lot tin select spikes for the piece of work related to whatever technical or pattern issue. Spikes are of 2 types Technical Spikes too Functional Spikes.

18) What is Extreme Programming (XP)?
 

Extreme Programming technique is really helpful when in that location is constantly changing demands or requirements from the customers or when they are non certain nearly the functionality of the system. It advocates frequent "releases" of the production inwards brusk evolution cycles, which inherently improves the productivity of the arrangement too also introduces a checkpoint where whatever client requirements tin locomote easily implemented. The XP develops software keeping client inwards the target.

19) What is Test Driven Development?
 

Test driven evolution or TDD is also known equally test-driven design. In this method, developer initiative off writes an automated exam representative which describes novel business office or improvement too and then creates modest codes to top that test, too subsequently re-factors the novel code to regard the acceptable standards.

20) What is a Test stub?
 

A exam stub is a flake of code that replaces an undeveloped or fully developed factor inside a arrangement existence tested. The exam stub is built such that it mimics the actual factor past times generating specific known outputs. The stub tin locomote used equally a substitute for the actual (fully developed) factor for testing purposes. The stub tin also locomote used during testing to isolate arrangement components too troubleshoot problems. H5N1 exam stub is also known equally a exam double.

21) What is Crystal Methodology?
 

Crystal Methodology is based on 3 concepts,
•    Chartering: Various activities involved inwards this stage are creating a evolution team, performing a preliminary feasibility analysis, developing an initial programme too fine-tuning the evolution methodology
•    Cyclic delivery: The primary evolution stage consists of 2 or to a greater extent than delivery cycles, during which the

i.    Team updates too refines the release plan
ii.    Implements a subset of the requirements through ane or to a greater extent than programme exam integrate iterations
iii.    Integrated production is delivered to existent users
iv.    Review of the projection programme too adopted evolution methodology
•    Wrap Up: The activities performed inwards this stage are deployment into the user environment, post- deployment reviews too reflections are performed.

22) Explain inwards Agile, burn-up too burn-down chart?
 

To rails the projection progress give the sack upwardly too give the sack downwards charts are used,
•    Burn upwardly Chart: It shows the progress of stories done over time
•    Burn downwards Chart: It shows how much piece of work was left to do overtime

23) What is Dynamic Software Development Method (DSDM)?
 

DSDM is a Rapid Application Development (RAD) approach to software evolution too provides an agile projection delivery framework. The of import seem of DSDM is that the users are required to locomote involved actively, too the teams are given the might to brand decisions. Frequent delivery of production becomes the active focus alongside DSDM.

24) Explain what is Scrum ban?
 

Scrum ban is a software evolution model based on Scrum too Kanban. It is specially designed for projection that requires frequent maintenance, having unexpected user stories too programming errors. Using these approach, the team’s workflow is guided inwards a way that allows minimum completion fourth dimension for each user floor or programming error.

25) What is Feature Driven Development (FDD)?
 

This method is focused around "designing & building" features. Unlike other agile methods, FDD describes really specific too brusk phases of piece of work that has to locomote accomplished separately per feature. It includes domain walkthrough, pattern inspection, promote to build, code inspection too design.

26) What is Lean Software Development?
 

Lean software evolution method is based on the regulation "Just inwards fourth dimension production". It aims at increasing speed of software evolution too decreasing cost.

27) What is Re-factoring?
 

Re-factoring is modifying existing code to improve its performance, readability, extensibility etc. The code’s functionality remains equally it is.

28) What are the 2 fundamental factors when working equally a QA inwards an agile team?
 

QA tin add together a lot of value to an agile squad because of the different mindset. Testers tin too should recollect nearly the different possible scenarios to exam a story. However the most of import property that they tin convey is:
•    To preclude defect:QA should advocate best practices along the way to preclude defects from entering the arrangement inwards the initiative off place.
•    To supply fast feedback: It is of import for developers to know if the novel functionality plant equally expected too if regression tests pass, too they demand that feedback quite quickly. QA should supply the results of the tests to developers equally before long equally possible.

29) What are the Disadvantages of Agile model?
 

•    In representative of some software deliverables, particularly the large ones, it is hard to assess the attempt required at the start of the software evolution life cycle.
•    There is lack of emphasis on necessary designing too documentation.
•    The projection tin easily larn taken off rails if the client representative is non clear what finally consequence that they want.
•    Only senior programmers are capable of taking the variety of decisions required during the evolution process. Hence it has no house for newbie programmers, unless combined alongside experienced resources.

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/
October 19, 2018

Security Testing Interview Questions

Security Testing Interview Questions

1) What is Security?


Security is laid of measures to protect an application against unforeseen actions that motility it to halt performance or beingness exploited.


Unforeseen actions tin move either intentional or unintentional.

2) What is Security Testing?
 

Security Testing is a type of software testing that intends to uncover vulnerabilities of the scheme in addition to create upward one's hear that its information in addition to resources are protected from possible intruders.

The destination of safety testing is to position the threats inwards the scheme in addition to stair out its potential vulnerabilities. 


It also helps inwards detecting all possible safety risks inwards the scheme in addition to aid developers inwards fixing these problems through coding.


3) What is Vulnerability?
 

This is a weakness inwards the spider web application. The motility of such a "weakness" tin move bugs inwards the application, an injection (SQL/ script code) or the presence of viruses.

4) What is a Bug?
 

A error inwards a programme which causes the programme to perform inwards an unintended or unanticipated manner.

5) What are the primary focus areas to move considered inwards Security Testing?
 

There are iv primary focus areas to move considered inwards safety testing (Especially for spider web sites/applications):
•    Network security: This involves looking for vulnerabilities inwards the network infrastructure (resources in addition to policies).
•    System software security: This involves assessing weaknesses inwards the diverse software (operating system, database system, in addition to other software) the application depends on.
•    Client-side application security: This deals amongst ensuring that the customer (browser or whatever such tool) cannot move manipulated.
•    Server-side application security: This involves making certain that the server code in addition to its technologies are robust plenty to fend off whatever intrusion.

6) Give an representative of a basic Security Test?
 

This is an representative of a really basic safety examine which anyone tin perform on a spider web site/application:
•    Log into the spider web application.
•    Log out of the spider web application.
•    Click the BACK push of the browser (Check if yous are asked to log inwards over again or if yous are provided the logged-in application)
Most types of safety testing involve complex steps in addition to out-of-the-box thinking but, sometimes, it is unproblematic tests similar the 1 inwards a higher house that aid expose the most severe safety risks.

7) What are the dissimilar types of safety testing?
 

There are vii primary types of safety testing equally per Open Source Security Testing methodology manual. They are explained equally follows:

•    Vulnerability Scanning: This is done through automated software to scan a scheme against known vulnerability signatures.


•    Security Scanning: It involves identifying network in addition to scheme weaknesses, in addition to afterwards provides solutions for reducing these risks. This scanning tin move performed for both Manual in addition to Automated scanning.
 

•    Penetration testing: This sort of testing simulates an laid on from malicious hacker. This testing involves analysis of a item scheme to banking company tally for potential vulnerabilities to an external hacking attempt.
 

•    Risk Assessment: This testing involves analysis of safety risks observed inwards the organization. Risks are classified equally Low, Medium in addition to High. This testing recommends controls in addition to measures to cut back the risk.
 

•    Security Auditing: This is internal inspection of Applications in addition to Operating systems for safety flaws. Audit tin also move done via line yesteryear line inspection of code
 

•    Ethical hacking: It's hacking an Organization Software systems. Unlike malicious hackers, who bag for their ain gains, the intent is to expose safety flaws inwards the system.
 

•    Posture Assessment: This combines Security scanning, Ethical Hacking in addition to Risk Assessments to demo an overall safety posture of an organization.

8) What are the major tables to move included inwards examine plan?


      Test invention should include,
•    Security related examine cases or scenarios
•    Test Data related to safety testing
•    Test Tools required for safety testing
•    Analysis on diverse tests outputs from dissimilar safety tools

9) What is tiger box penetration testing?


 This testing is unremarkably done on a laptop which has a collection of OSs in addition to hacking tools. This testing helps penetration testers in addition to safety testers to acquit vulnerabilities assessment in addition to attacks.

10) What is dark box testing?
 

Tester is authorized to produce testing on everything virtually the network topology in addition to the technology.

11) What is grayness box testing?
 

Partial information is given to the tester virtually the system, in addition to it is hybrid of white in addition to dark box models.

12) What is Fuzz Testing?
 

Fuzz testing is a dark box testing technique which uses a random bad information to laid on a programme to banking company tally if anything breaks inwards the application.

13) What is smoke test?
 

Testing the application whether it is performing its basic functionality properly or not, thence that the examine squad tin become ahead amongst application

14) What is the departure betwixt verification in addition to validation?
 

Verification is a review without truly executing the procedure piece validation is checking the production amongst actual execution. For instance, code review in addition to syntax banking company tally is verification piece truly running the production in addition to checking the effect is validation.

15)What are dissimilar types of verifications?
 

•    Verification is static type of s/w testing. It way code is non executed. The production is evaluated yesteryear going through the code. Types of verification are:

•    Walkthrough: Walkthroughs are informal, initiated yesteryear the writer of the s/w production to a colleague for assistance inwards locating defects or suggestions for improvements. They are unremarkably unplanned. Author explains the product; colleague comes out amongst observations in addition to writer notes downwards relevant points in addition to takes corrective actions.


•    Inspection: Inspection is a thorough word-by-word checking of a software production amongst the intention of locating defects, confirming traceability of relevant requirements etc.

16) What are the myths in addition to Facts of Security Testing?
 

Myth 1: We don't demand a safety policy equally nosotros receive got a modest business
Fact: Everyone in addition to every fellowship demand a safety policy


Myth 2:There is no render on investment inwards safety testing
Fact: Security Testing tin betoken out areas for improvement that tin ameliorate efficiency in addition to cut back downtime, enabling maximum throughput.


Myth 3: Only way to secure is to unplug it.
Fact: The entirely in addition to the best way to secure organisation is to give away "Perfect Security". Perfect safety tin move achieved yesteryear performing posture assessment in addition to compare amongst business, legal in addition to manufacture justifications.


Myth 4: Internet isn't safe. I volition buy software or hardware to safeguard the scheme in addition to relieve business.
Fact: One of the biggest problems is to buy software in addition to hardware for security. Instead, organisation should sympathize safety offset in addition to and thence apply it.

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/

Thursday, October 18, 2018

October 18, 2018

Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners


Manual Testing Tutorial for Beginners 

I) SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)

    a) Sequential Models (Waterfall Model, V model)
    b) Incremental / Iterative Models (Spiral Model, Agile Models)

II) Software Test Levels
    a) Unit / Component / Program / Module Testing
        Testers: Developers

    b) Integration Testing
        Testers: Developers
   
    ***c) System Testing
        Testers: Independent Testers
   
    d) Acceptance Testing
        Testers: End users

III) Software Test Types
    Functional Testing
   
    Non-Functional Testing
        Performance /Load /Stress Testing
        Usability Testing
        Configuration Testing
        Recovery Testing
        Reliability Testing
        Localization /Internationalization Testing
        Etc...

IV ) Test Design Techniques
    a) White Box Test Design Techniques
   
    1) Statement Testing
        2) Decision Testing
        3) Condition Testing Etc...
   
    b) Black Box Test Design Techniques
   
    1) Equalent Classes
        2) Boundary Value Analysis
        3) Decision Tables
        4) State Transition Testing
        5) Use representative Testing
        etc...

    c) Experience based Techniques
   
    1) Error guessing
        2) Exploratory Testing
   
V) Software Test Process / STLC
    a) Test Planning
   
    1) Understanding & Analyzing the Requirements
        2) Risk Analysis
        3) Test Strategy Implementation
        4) Test Estimations (Budget, Time, Resources in addition to Scope of the Project)
        5) Team formation
        6) Test Plan Documentation
        7) Configuration Management Planning
        8) Defining Test Environment Set-up
       
    b) Test Design
   
    1) Generating Test Scenarios / Out lines
        2) Test Case Documentation
        3) Test Data Collection      

    c) Test Execution
        1) Verify Test Environment Set -up
        2) Create Test Batches
        3) Test execution
            Sanity /Smoke / BVT / BAT
            Comprehensive Testing
            Defect Reporting
            Defect Tracking
            Regression Testing (General, Final Regression)
   
    d) Test Closure
        1) Evaluating the Exit Criteria
        2) Collecting all artifacts from Test activities
        3) Test Summary Report
        4) Sending Test deliverables to the Customer
        5) Improvement suggestions for futurity projects

Quality Standards-----------------
    ISO (It is providing Terms. in addition to Process)
    IEEE (Terms, Test Documentation templates etc...)
    CMM / CMMI (Process)
-------------------------------------------------------------
Domain Knowledge
BFSI
ERP
Telecom
Healthcare
Ecommerce
Retail Market
Etc...
Software Test Documents
Test conception Document

Test Case

Test Data

Defect Report

Test Summary Report etc...

--------------------------------------

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/
October 18, 2018

VBScript Tutorial


VBScript Tutorial for UFT

I) Introducing VBScript:
> Visual Basic Scripting Edition, It is a calorie-free weight linguistic communication from Microsoft.

> VBScript derived from VB Programming language.

> VBScript is non a instance sensitive language.

> No formalities for writing statements.

> It ignores extra spaces.

> It is a platform subject language.
----------------------------------------
II) Scripting Languages versus Programming Languages
 

a) Scripting Languages:
Example: Shell script, Perl, Java Script, Python, Ruby, Rexx etc...

> No Explicit proclamation of Data Types, Ex: Dim a, b, c   

> Scripting Languages are Interpreter based languages.

> Scripting Languages back upwardly Explicit too Implicit proclamation of Variables.

Example:

Dim a
a = 100 'Explicit variable
b = 200 'Implicit variable
Msgbox a + b

> Limited Support for Application development

> Limited back upwardly for UI design.

> Limited back upwardly for graphics design.

> Scripting Languages Can live on easily integrated amongst other Technologies.

> Scripting Languages Reduce the code size
----------------
b) Programming Languages:

Example: COBOL, C, C++, Java, VB, VC++, C# etc....   

> Programming Languages back upwardly Explicit Declaration of Data types only.

Example:

int a, char b, float c

> Programming Languages are Compiler based Languages.

> Programming Languages back upwardly Explicit proclamation of Variables only.

> Rich back upwardly for Application development.

> Rich back upwardly for UI design.

> Rich back upwardly for Graphics design.

> Difficult to integrate amongst other technologies.
> Scripting Languages Increase the code size.                    
-------------------------------------------------------------
III) Usage of VBScript

a) Client side scripting inwards the Web (HTML) (Browser-IE)

b) Server side scripting inwards the spider web (ASP) (Web Server -IIS)

c) Network Administration on Server OS (WSH)

d) System Administration on Client OS or Server OS (WSH)
---------------------------------------
e) Test Automation (UFT) (UFT)
-------------------------------------------
IV) VBScript Fundamentals too Features

1) Adding Comments

Purpose:
    To brand the code Readable
    To brand the code disable from Execution
------------------------------------
2) Data Types

> No Data type specification inwards VBScript

> VBScript considers information sub types based on usage of the Data

> using VarType business office user tin cheque the information sub types.
----------------------------------------------------
3) Declarations

    a) Constants
    Built in
    User defined

    b) Variables
    Scalar Variables
    Array variables
    * Dictionary object is equilent to Hash variables/ Associated Arrays inwards Perl Script.
------------------------------------------
4) Operators

Categories of Operators

    a) Arithmetic operators

    b) Comparison operators
   
    c) Logical operators
    ----------------
    * Concatenation operators (Part of Arithmetic operators)
------------------------------------------------------
5) Conditional Statements
 

a) Types of conditional statements
i) If statement

ii) Select Case statement
--------------
b) Types of conditions
i) Single condition

ii) Compound condition

iii) Nested condition
----------------------------- 

c) Usage of Conditional statements
i) Execute a disceptation when status is truthful / unproblematic if

ii) Execute a block of statements when status True.

iii) Execute a block of statements when status True, otherwise execute roughly other block
of statements.

iv) Decide amid several alternates (Elseif)

v) Execute a block of statements when to a greater extent than than ane status is True (Nested If)

vi) Decide amid several alternates (Using pick out Case)
------------------
d) Purpose of Conditional statements inwards UFT

i) To insert verification points
ii) Error handling
--------------------------------------------------------
6) Loop Statements

a) For...Next

b) While...Wend

c) Do While / Until...Loop

d) For Each...Next

* Using Exit Statement nosotros tin give the sack the loops.

Note: nosotros tin insert Loop statements inside weather too vice versa
----------------------------------------------
7) VBScript Functions
 

> Function is a Reusable code.

> Whenever nosotros desire execute same operations multiple times therefore nosotros prefer functions.

Types of functions

a) Built-in Functions

    i) Array Functions
    ii) String functions
    iii) Date & Time functions
    iv) Conversion functions
    v) I/O Functions
    vi) Math Functions
    vii) Miscellaneous functions

b) User defined Functions
--------------------------
i) Sub Procedures
        Public, Private - Access control
        Internal, External - Usage

ii) Function Procedures

        Public, Private - Access control
        Internal, External - Usage
---------------------------------------------------
8) Coding conventions

Writing comments

Naming conventions etc...

ex:

Dim num, city, Fso 'Without standards

Dim intNum, strCity, objFso -With naming standards
------------------------------------------------------
9) File System Operations

> What is Computer File System?

> Examples for File System Operations

> How halt user performs File System Operations

> How to perform automatic File System Operations

Using File System Object nosotros tin perform automatic File System Operations

Class value for creating File System Object - ("Scripting.FileSystemObject")

Set Variable = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")

Set is VBScript statement

CreateObject is Built function
---------------------------------------------
10) Excel Application Operations
Excel Application Object:

It is used to perform operations on Excel Application/Excel files

Class Value for creating Excel Application object - ("Excel.Application")
-----------------------------------------------
11) Word Application operations

Word Application Object

It is used to perform operations on Word Application / Word documents.

Class value for creating Word Application object - ("Word.Application")
-----------------------------------------------------
12) Database operations

a) Database Connection Object

It is used to connect to Databases

Note: Connection string entirely varies from One Database to another.

Class value for creating database connective object - ("Adodb.Connection")
----------
b) Database Recordset Object

It is used to perform operations on Database Records.

Class value for creating Database Recordset object - ("Adodb.Recordset")
----------------------------------------------
13) Dictionary Object

It is used to define key, value pairs.

Class value - ("Scripting.Dictionary")
------------------------------------------------------------
14) Regular Expressions

Regular Expression - It is a formula for matching patterns

Constant matching -

india.doc - india.doc

Pattern matching

i*.

ia.....
ib..........
.
.
india.doc
-------------------------------------------------------
15) Error Handling

Handling expected too unexpected Errors.

Expected Error:

Whenever nosotros exercise invalid input therefore nosotros tin await the Error.

Note: We exercise Invalid Input for Negative Testing
----------------
Unexpected Error:

Scenarios:

i) Availability of the Resource

ii) Resource Response

iii) Insufficient Resource.
------------------------------

VBScript features for Error Handling:

a) Conditional statements

b) Using roughly built inwards Functions

c) Using Exit Statement

d) Using Option explicit disceptation

e) Using On fault Resume Next

Etc...
-----------------------------------------------

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

October 17, 2018

Java OOPS Concepts

Java OOPS Concepts for Selenium
OOPS - Object Oriented Programming System

Four Fundamentals of OOPS:
i) Inheritance

ii) Polymorphism

iii) Abstraction

iv) Encapsulation
------------------------
i) Inheritance:
> It is a procedure of inheriting (reusing) the aeroplane members 9variables together with methods) from i aeroplane to unopen to other aeroplane is called Inheritance.

> Non static (object level) aeroplane members solely tin travel inherited.

> The aeroplane from where the aeroplane members are getting inherited is called equally Super class/ Parent class/base class

> The aeroplane to which the aeroplane members are getting inherited is called
Sub class/ Child aeroplane / Derived class.

> The Inheritance betwixt Super aeroplane together with Sub aeroplane is achieved using "extends" keyword.

Syntax:

Class SubClass extends SuperClass {
//body
}
They are iii types of Inheritance:

i) Single Inheritance

Ex:

Class B extends Class A
---------------------------
ii) Multi aeroplane inheritance:

Ex:

Class B extends Class A

Class C extends Class B

iii) Multiple Inheritance (*Java doesn't support)

Ex:

Class B extends Class A

Class C extends Class B

In Class C
add method
-----------------------------
Class C extends Class D
-------------------------------

Inheritance example:
----------------------
public aeroplane B {
    int a = 10;
    int b = 20;
    populace void addition(){
        System.out.println("Addition of a, b is: " + (a+b));
    }
  populace static void primary (String [] args){
      B myObject = novel B();
      myObject.addition();
  }
}
---------------------------------
package javaiooperations;

public aeroplane C extends B {
/*int a =100;
int b =200;
public void addition(){
    System.out.println("Addition of a, b is: " +(a+ b));
}*/
public static void primary (String [] args){
    C abc = novel C();
    abc.addition(); //
}
}
-------------------------------
package javaiooperations;

public aeroplane D extends C{
    /*int a=1;
    int b=2;
    populace void addition(){
        System.out.println("Addition of a, b is: "+(a + b));
    }*/
    populace static void primary (String [] args){
   D obj = novel D();
   obj.addition();
}
}
--------------------------------------
ii) Polymorphism:
Polymorphism means, beingness of Object demeanor inwards many forms.

They are 2 types of polymorphism:

i) Compile Time/ Static binding/ Method overloading

ii) Run Time polymorphism / Dynamic binding / Method overriding
-----------------------
i) Compile Time
-------------------
If 2 or to a greater extent than methods having same method cite inwards the same aeroplane but they differ inwards the next ways:

i) No of Arguments

Ex:

add (int a, int b){
}

add (int a, int b, int c) {
}
--------------------------
ii) Order of Arguments

iii) Type of Arguments

Ex:

add (int a, int b){
}

add (double a, double b){
}
------------------------------------
Example:
package javaiooperations;

public aeroplane MethodOverLoading {
    populace void add together (int a, int b){
        System.out.println(a+b);
    }
    populace void add together (int a, int b, int c){
        System.out.println(a+b+c);
    }
   
        populace void add together (double a, double b){
            System.out.println(a+b);   
    }
    populace static void primary (String [] args){
        MethodOverLoading obj = novel MethodOverLoading();
        obj.add(2, 5);
        obj.add(2, 5, 7);
        obj.add(1.234, 4.567);
    }
}
---------------------------------
ii) Run time/Method Overriding

If 2 methods are having same cite together with same arguments available inwards the Super aeroplane together with sub class, together with then nosotros telephone scream upward those 2 methods are overridden.

Ex:

public aeroplane Y {
int a = 10,  b=20;
public void  add together () {
    System.out.println(a+b);
}
}
-----------------
public aeroplane Z extends Y{
    int a = 1,  b=2;
    populace void  add together () {
        System.out.println(a+b);
    }
    populace static void primary (String [] args){
        Z obj = novel Z();
        obj.add(); // 3
       
        Y obj1 = novel Y();
        obj1.add(); //30
       
        Y obj2 = novel Z();
        obj2.add();
    }
    }
--------------------------------
iii) Abstraction:
> It is a procedure of hiding implementation details together with showing solely functionality to the user.

> In Java, nosotros bring 2 types of methods

i) Concrete Methods (The methods which are having body)

Ex:

public void addition()
{
// Method body
}
--------------
ii) Abstract Methods (The methods which are non having body)

Ex:

public void add-on ();
--------------------------------
If nosotros know the method name, but don't know what the method performs, together with then nosotros become for abstract methods.

Inheritance:
-------------
A sub aeroplane extends Super aeroplane is known equally Inheritance.

Class members inwards java:

Variables together with Methods.

Static Class Members (Class Level)

> using aeroplane cite nosotros tin access Static aeroplane members.

Non Static Class Members (Object Level)

> Using Object/Instance
-----------------------
Note 1: Static Class members are non inherited to the Sub class.

Note 2: Non Static aeroplane members are inherited to the Sub class.
--------------------------------------------
Example for Accessing Static together with Non static aeroplane members:
-----------
package JavaOOPS;
public aeroplane AbstractionExample {
    static int a = 10, b = 20; //Static variables
    int c = 30, d = 40; // Non static variables
   
    populace static void add1() { // Static method
        System.out.println(a+b);
    }
    populace void add2() // Non static method
    {
        System.out.println(c+d);
    }
    populace static void primary (String [] args) {
        // Access Static Class Members using Class Name
        System.out.println(AbstractionExample.a); // 10
        System.out.println(AbstractionExample.b); // 20
        AbstractionExample.add1();// 30
       
        System.out.println("");
        // Access Non static aeroplane members using Object /Instance
        AbstractionExample obj = novel AbstractionExample();
        System.out.println(obj.c); // 30
        System.out.println(obj.d); // 40
        obj.add2(); //70
            }
   
}
---------------------------------------
Abstract Class
> coffee Class contains 100% concrete methods

> Abstract (incomplete) aeroplane contains i or to a greater extent than abstract methods.

> Abstract aeroplane may bring abstract together with concrete methods.

Ex:

Class1 (having 10 methods)

10 methods are concrete methods
----------
Class2 (having 10 methods)

5 methods concrete
5 methods Abstract

* Abstract class
----------------------
Class3 (having 10 methods)

10 methods Abstract
* Abstract class
------------------------------
Example for Abstract Class:
--------------------------
Syntax:

public abstract aeroplane ClassName{

public void methodName(){
//Body
}

public abstract void methodname();

}
-----------------------------
Super Class
package JavaOOPS;

public abstract aeroplane Bike {
public void engine(){
    System.out.println("Bikes bring Engine");
}
public abstract void handle();

public abstract void seat();
}
--------------------------------
Sub Class:
package JavaOOPS;

public aeroplane HeroHonda extends Bike{

    @Override
    populace void handle() {
        System.out.println("Bikes bring Handle");
        }

    @Override
    populace void seat() {
        System.out.println("Bikes bring Seats");
        }
    populace static void primary (String [] args){
        HeroHonda obj = novel HeroHonda();
        obj.engine();
        obj.handle();
        obj.seat();
    }
}
------------------------------------------------
iv) Encapsulation:
It is a procedure of wrapping code together with information together into a unmarried unit.

Encapsulation is the technique making the fields inwards a aeroplane someone together with providing access via populace methods.

Advantages:

> It provides us the command over the Data.

> By providing solely setter together with getter methods, nosotros tin brand a aeroplane read solely or write only.

If nosotros don't define setter method together with then read only

If nosotros don't define getter method together with then write only.
---------------------------------------------
Java Interfaces:
> Interface is a Java type Definition block which is 100% abstract.
(Contains 100% abstract methods)

> All the Interface methods are yesteryear default populace together with abstract.

> Static together with in conclusion modifiers are non allowed for Interface methods.

> In Interfaces, variables bring to initialize at the fourth dimension of declaration.

ex:

int a = 10; // Correct
int a; // Incorrect

> In Interfaces variables are populace static in conclusion yesteryear default.

> Interface is going to travel used using "implements" keyword.
------------------------
Example:

package JavaOOPS;

public interface Example2 {
int a = 10, b =20;
public abstract void add();
void sub();
}
--------------------------
package JavaOOPS;

public aeroplane Exa4 implements Example2{

    @Override
    populace void add() {
        System.out.println("Addition");
        }

    @Override
    populace void sub() {
        System.out.println("Subtraction");
            }
    populace static void primary (String []args){
        Exa4 obj= novel Exa4();
        obj.add();
        obj.sub();
    }

}
--------------------------------------------------

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/
October 17, 2018

SAP Testing Interview Questions

SAP Testing Interview Questions
 

1) What is SAP?
SAP is the cite of the fellowship founded inward 1972 nether the German linguistic communication cite (Systems, Applications, too Products inward Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.

2) What is SAP Testing?
SAP testing helps to discovery too rectify errors at all projection phases.So it gives the high confidence that the SAP application supports line organisation procedure equally per organisation requirements from the hateful solar daytime of go-live phase.

3) Why do you lot normally select to implement SAP?
There are release of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It's highly configurable, highly secure information handling, minute information redundancy, max information consistency, you lot tin capitalize on economic science of sales similar purchasing, tight integration-cross function.

4) What is ERP?
ERP is a bundle amongst the techniques too concepts for the integrated administration of line organisation equally a whole, for effective exercise of administration resources, to amend the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing manufacture mainly for planning too managing core line organisation similar production too fiscal market. As the increment too merits of ERP bundle ERP software is designed for basic procedure of a fellowship from manufacturing to modest shops amongst a target of integrating information across the company.

5) What are the different types of ERP?
Different types of ERP are,

SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP, most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of release of advantages over other ERP packages.

6) How tin an ERP such equally SAP aid a line organisation possessor larn to a greater extent than most how line organisation operates?
In guild to exercise an ERP system, abusiness individual must sympathise the line organisation processes too how they piece of work together from 1 functional expanse to the other. This noesis gives the pupil a much deeper agreement of how a line organisation operates. Using SAP equally a tool to larn most ERP systems volition take that the people sympathise the line organisation processes too how they integrate.

7) Why do you lot normally select to implement SAP?
There are release of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure information handling, minute information redundancy, max information consistency, you lot tin capitalize on economic science of sales similar purchasing, tight integration-cross function.

8) How tin an ERP such equally SAP aid a line organisation possessor larn to a greater extent than most how line organisation operates?
In guild to exercise an ERP system, abusiness individual must sympathise the line organisation processes too how they piece of work together from 1 functional expanse to the other. This noesis gives the pupil a much deeper agreement of how a line organisation operates. Using SAP equally a tool to larn most ERP systems volition take that thepeople sympathise the line organisation processes too how they integrate.

9) What is the different type of users inward SAP?
Different types of users inward SAP are,
a) Dialog Users
b) System Users
c)  Communication Users
d) Service Users
e) Reference Users

10) Explain what is the exercise of reference too service user inward SAP?
Service User:  For “service user” initial password or expiration of password are non checked.  Only admin has rights to alter the password, users cannot. Multiple logins are possible.
Usage: Service users are for anonymous users.  Minimum authorisation should endure given to such type of users
Reference User: For this form of users GUI login is non possible.
Usage: In instance of emergency, amongst the aid of reference user, it is possible to render 1 user authorisation to about other user.

11) Explain what is “Data Sets” inward SAP?
To solve queries which cannot endure solved past times using the method interfaces, a ready of information is used. This ready of information is known equally “Data Sets”.

12) What is SAPS?
SAPS stands for SAP Application Performance Standard, which is a hardware independent unit of measurement which describes the performance of a scheme configuration inward SAP environment.

13) How many types of piece of work processes are in that location inward SAP?
There are 7 types of piece of work processes they are:
a) Dialog
b) Enque
c)  Update
d) Background
e) Spool
f)  Message
g) Server
h) Gateway

14) Is SAP a database?
NO. SAP is non a database but it uses databases from other vendors similar Oracle. Although SAP has of late released its ain database HANA.

15) What is SAP R/3?
A 3rd generation ready of highly integrated software modules that performs mutual line organisation role based on multinational leading practice. Takes attention of whatsoever firm nevertheless various inward operation, spread over the world. In R/3 scheme all the 3 servers similar presentation, application server too database server are located at different system.

16) What are presentation, application too database servers inward SAP R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made upward of the application servers too the message server. Application programs inward an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate amongst the presentation components, the database, too also amongst each other, using the message server. All the information are stored inward a centralized server. This server is called database server.

17) What is the divergence betwixt Developer Trace, System Log too System Trace?
a) System Trace: When you lot wishing to tape internal SAP scheme activities, scheme line is used. The line is useful inward diagnosis internal problems inside SAP scheme too the host system.
b) System Log: To know the recent logs for application server too CI, System log is referred.
c)  Developer Trace: In the lawsuit of problems, developer trace, records the technical information most the mistake or problem. For work analysis too scheme monitoring Developer line or System log is used.

18) What is OSP$ mean?
Two users “OPS$adm” too “OPS$SAP” Service are created inward your SAP scheme too to connect too communicate amongst database internally this user machinery is used.

19) What is the divergence betwixt – back upward package, center too SAP note?
•    SAP Note: An mistake inward a unmarried transaction or programme is removed past times implementing a SAP note.
•    Kernel: Kernel contains the executable files (.EXE) similar other applications too when a Kernel upgrade is done a novel version of the EXE file replaces the older versions.
•    Support Package: SAP back upward packages is a bunch of corrections, this tin endure used past times applying transaction SPAM

20) What is individual mode?
In individual mode, the heap information is solely allocated past times the user too is no to a greater extent than shared or available across the system. This occurs when your extended retention is exhausted.

21) Explain what is SAP IDES?
SAP Internet Demonstration too Evaluation System or SAP IDES, this scheme demonstrate the functionality of various SAP solutions used past times of import customers.

22) What is the role of “Application Server”?
Application Server takes the asking from the user too if the asking requires information too thus it connects to the database server too gives output.

23) What is supplementation language?
Default SAP systems are pre-installed amongst English linguistic communication too German. SAP does back upward many other linguistic communication which may non amount interpret from the default English linguistic communication too German. To create amount this gap, Supplementary linguistic communication (a program) is installed.

24) What are the different types of RFC too explicate what Transactional RFC is?
RFC (Remote Function Call) is a machinery to communicate too exchanging the information betwixt other SAP systems.  There are 4 types of RFC’s system
a) Synchronous RFC (S RFC)
b) Asynchronous RFC (A RFC)
c)  Transactional RFC (T RFC)
d) Queued RFC (Q RFC)
Transactional RFC (TRFC):  This type of RFC is similar to asynchronous RFC, but past times allocating a transaction ID (TID) it makes certain that the asking sent multiple times due to an mistake must procedure simply for once.  In T RFC the remote scheme does non receive got to endure available at the 2nd dissimilar asynchronous RFC.

25) Explain how to define logon groups?
Logon groups tin endure defined using the Tcode smlg. In guild to do that you lot receive got to create the grouping too and thus assign the instances for that exceptional group.

26) What is SAP unmarried stack system?
A unmarried stack scheme is defined past times SAP scheme either amongst JAVA equally runtime engine or SAP Net weaver equally ABAP.
e.g.: Single Stack System (Java) is SAP Enterprise Portal System (Ep)
  Single Stack System (ABAP) is SAP ERP (ECC)

27) Explain what is heterogeneous scheme re-create too homogenous scheme copy?
Homogenous scheme copy= Same OS + Same Database
Heterogeneous scheme copy= Different OS + Different database or same database.

28) What is the divergence betwixt OLAP too Data Mining?
OLAP – On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to sympathise your database schema, composition facts too dimensions. By uncomplicated point-n-clicking, a user tin run whatsoever release of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” too executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to construct the application to specifically await at detailed analyses, frequently algorithmic; fifty-fifty to a greater extent than frequently misappropriate called “reporting.

29) Explain what is line organisation KPIs?
Business KPIs are Key Performance Indicators.  It indicates the performance of a fellowship at a strategic level. They aid inward leading the fellowship on the desired rail past times comparison company’s previous performance amongst the marketplace leaders inward the same market.

30) Name about drawbacks of SAP?
Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where master copy information resides, Expensive, really complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/

Tuesday, October 16, 2018

October 16, 2018

VBScript Tutorial for beginners

VBScript Tutorial 2 
(Comments, Data Types as well as Variables Part-1)


i) VBScript Comments
Comments are English linguistic communication words; nosotros role comments for Code documentation.

Purpose:

    To brand the code readable
    To brand the code disable from execution

Syntax:
-------------
Use ' symbol earlier the statement

Use Rem ascendency followed past times space

'Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Agent Name:").Set "asdf"
Dialog("Login").WinEdit("Password:").SetSecure "555d2f3be286cd5dc51229cfb136d5bf41a13691"
Dialog("Login").WinButton("OK").Click ' t4tyy y56u56u867 76578789
Rem Window("Flight Reservation").Close
--------------------------------------
Comment a block of statements

    Select Statements
    Use Shortcut telephone substitution (Ctrl + M)
    Or
Select Statements
Edit bill of fare -> Format -> Comment
---------------------------------
Uncomment

    select comment block
    Use Shortcut telephone substitution (Ctrl + Shift + M)

Or
Select statements
Edit bill of fare -> Format -> Uncomment
---------------------------------------
Usage of Comments inwards UFT:
---------------------------
a) To write Test headers

'***************************************************
'Test Name: Verify the Total inwards Flight Reservation

'Author: abcd

'Date of Creation: May 21st 2015

'Date of Modification: NA

'Pre-requisites:
'login.tsr, abcd.vbs etc...

'Test Flow:
'i) Launch the Application as well as Login.
'ii) Open an Order as well as capture "Tickets", "Price", as well as "Total" values
'iii) Convert the information as well as compare if the "Total" = "Tickets" * "Price" or not
'iv) Close the Application
'***************************************************
b) To write Function headers
'**********************************************
'Function Name: Login

'Author: abcd

'Date of Creation: May 21st 2015

'Date of Modification: NA

'Input: Agent Name as well as Password

'Output: FR window

'Purpose: Agent Login to FR Application
'**********************************************
c) To explicate the complex logic

d) To explicate the resources usage.

----------------------------------------
ii) VBScript Data Types
-------------------------------------
> VBScript doesn't back upward Explicit annunciation of Data Types.

> In VBScript exclusively Data type is Variant, It tin sack concur whatever type of data, based on exercise of information VBScript internally considers Data sub types.

Ex:

Dim city

city = "Hyderabad" 'String
---------
----------
----------
city = 100 'Integer
---------
----------
----------
city = 1.24 'Double
---------
----------
----------
city = #10/10/2015# 'Date
-----------------------------
> Check Data Sub types using VarType Function

> Convert the Data from ane sub type to another.
----------------------------------------------------
Types of Results inwards Computer Programming:
-----------------------------------------
i) Value based Result
Ex:

Msgbox v + iii ' 8
Msgbox iv * vii '28
-------------------------
ii) Boolean / Logical Result

Ex:
Msgbox IsNumeric("ABCD") 'False
Msgbox IsNumeric(100) 'True
---------------------------------
iii) Constant based Result

Msgbox VarType(100) '2 for Integer
-----------------------------------------------
Check Data Sub types using VarType Function
----------------------------------------
Dim a
Msgbox VarType(a) '0 for Empty / Uninitialized

a = 100
Msgbox VarType(a) '2 for Integer

Msgbox VarType(100) '2 for Integer

Msgbox VarType("abcd") '8 for String

Msgbox VarType("100") ' 8 for String

Msgbox VarType(1.24) ' v for Double

Msgbox VarType(#10/10/2010#) '7 for Date

Set a = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")
Msgbox VarType(a) '9 for Automation Object
--------------------------------------------
Convert the Data from ane sub type to another.
----------------------------------------------
Why nosotros take away to convert the Data?

In Computer Programming value Assignment 2 types:

i) Initialization

Ex:

a = 100
----------------------------
ii) Reading
    Read information using Input devices
    Read information from a file
    Read information from a database
    Read information from Application objects
Ex:
'Before Conversion
Dim a, b
a = InputBox("Enter Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Value")
b = InputBox("Enter B Value")
Msgbox a + b
---------------------------------------
Note: If nosotros read information as well as therefore VBScript considers the information equally String type data.
In lodge to perform math-metical calculations, nosotros take away to convert the data.

> Using conversion Functions nosotros tin sack convert the data.

'After Conversion
Dim a, b
a = InputBox("Enter Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 Value")
b = InputBox("Enter B Value")
Msgbox Cint (a) + Cint (b)
----------------------------------
'We can't convert Alfa bytes into Integer or double type.

Ex:
Dim val, Tickets
val = InputBox("Enter a value")
Msgbox VarType(val) '8 for String
val = Cint(val)
Msgbox VarType(val)

Tickets = Window("Flight Reservation").WinEdit("Tickets:").GetROProperty("text")
Msgbox VarType(Tickets) '8 for String
Msgbox VarType(Cint(Tickets)) ' 2 for Integer
------------------------------------------------------
iii) Variables

1) What is Variable?

A named retention place to shop the data.

In calculator surroundings at that spot are ii types of memory

i) Primary memory: RAM

ii) Secondary memory: HDD, CD-Rom, DVD, USB Drive etc...

> Variables shop inwards Primary Memory (RAM).
---------------------------------------------------
2) Declaration of variables

> using either Public or Private or Dim statements, nosotros tin sack declare Variables.

Ex:

Dim a
Dim x, y, z
Or
Dim x
Dim y
Dim z
---------------------------
3) Implicit as well as Explicit variables.

Ex:
Dim a
a = 100 'Explicit
b = 200 'Implicit
Msgbox a + b
---------------------
Dim Tickets, Price, Total
Tickets = 7
Price = 100
Total = Tickets * Priee
Msgbox Total '0 (Incorrect output)
-----------
Option Explicit
Dim Tickets, Price, Total
Tickets = 7
Price = 100
Total = Tickets * Priee
Msgbox Total 'Error
---------------------------
Option Explicit - It forces annunciation of all variables inwards a Script
---------------------------------------------------------
4) Assigning Values to Variables

Assigning Values to Variables is ii types

i) Initialization

ii) Reading

Example:
Dim num1, num2
num1 = 100 'Initialization
num2 = InputBox ("Enter Num2 value") ' Reading
Msgbox num1 + num2
-----------------------
5) Purpose of Variables

Dim a, ord
'Holding the data
a = 100
Msgbox a
'Storing the information that returned past times a Function
a = Now
Msgbox a
'Storing the information that returned past times a program
a = (10 ^ 3)*2
Msgbox a

'storing object Reference
Set a = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")

'As parameter
For ord = 1 To v Step 1
Window("Flight Reservation").Activate
Window("Flight Reservation").WinButton("Button").Click
Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinCheckBox("Order No.").Set "ON"
Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinEdit("Edit").Set ord
Wait 2
Window("Flight Reservation").Dialog("Open Order").WinButton("OK").Click
Next
------------------------------------------
6) Naming Restrictions

i) Variable names should offset amongst Alfa bytes.
Ex:
Dim abc 'Correct
Dim a9 'Correct
Dim 7ab    'Incorrect

ii) Variable names should non comprise embedded periods.
----------------------------------------
7) Scope of variables

8) Types of Variables

9) Array variables
    Constant, Dynamic as well as Diementional Arrays
    Assigning serial of values to an Array variable
--------------------------------------------------------------
(*Incomplete)

Sumber http://www.gcreddy.com/